How is HIV not passed on?

Some body fluids, such as saliva, sweat and urine, do not have enough HIV in them to infect someone. HIV is not passed on by spitting, sneezing or coughing.
You cannot pass on HIV by kissing, by hugging, or by shaking hands with somebody - or any other normal social contact.

Nor can you pass on HIV to someone else by being in the same place as them, by using the same toilet, or by sharing household items such as cups, plates, cutlery, or bed linen.

Once outside the body, HIV usually can't survive for very long. Coming into contact with blood or semen that has been outside the body doesn't generally pose a risk for HIV transmission.
It is possible for HIV to be transmitted by someone accidentally cutting themselves with a blade or needle they have used to treat a person living with HIV. This is called a needle stick injury and the risk of being infected is very low. However, if someone thinks they have been exposed to HIV that way, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) may be an option.

Similarly, the risk of passing on HIV to someone else if you injure yourself is also very low. Wash away any blood with soap and hot water and cover the wound with a sticking plaster or dressing.